[The following excerpt is from Unleashing Opportunity: Why Escaping Poverty Requires A Shared Vision of Justice.]
Tonight, nearly half a million children will go to sleep in a bed that is not their own. In the morning, they’ll wake up in the same place they found themselves the day before: in foster care. The system has the best of intentions. But this is an area where good intentions are not enough. While most foster parents do wonderful, irreplaceable work, in many states the foster care system is badly broken. This is an issue where effective, accountable public institutions are essential – and often lacking. Too many children are allowed to fall through the gaps. And they fall into some very dark places.
A 2013 FBI sting operation that disrupted child prostitution rings found that more than half of the minors they rescued had come from the foster care system or group homes. Children in foster care make easy targets for pimps, who recruit at shelters, malls and bus stops. The average age for the entry of the girls into the sex trade is 12 to 14. They are often introduced into a cycle of drug abuse and controlled by threats of violence.
How can this be?
Poverty has a lot to do with it. Poverty affects a family's ability to provide basic necessities for their children - in some of the most extreme cases, things like food, shelter, and health care. One researcher has suggested that poverty is the best indicator of foster care placement. That's important to consider when in 2013, it was reported that three out of five rescued trafficking victims came from foster care homes.
To further understand this social problem (like so many others) it is necessary to listen – carefully and attentively – to those who are entangled in a dysfunctional system. Children who have emerged from this kind of exploitation report some common experiences. In foster care, they found themselves at the mercy of unrelated adults, were sometimes abused, and were often regarded and treated merely as sources of income. In the wrong kind of foster care, children come to see themselves as an instrument of gain. This kind of objectification can make them easier marks for victimization by traffickers.
In some cases, minors arrested for prostitution can be treated as criminals, which can be a further form of victimization. A criminal record can complicate the rest of their lives. Under federal law, anyone under 18 caught for commercial sex is considered a victim rather than a criminal. But state laws vary. There is a movement in many state legislatures toward “Safe Harbor” laws which not only protect minors from prosecution but provide rehabilitation services. In the strongest versions of this approach, minors are detained and offered medical treatment, emergency housing, psychological counseling, education assistance and job training.
But public policy only reaches so far. Children in crisis situations need welcoming foster families. They need organizations and churches committed to their long-term care. They need a government that supports this work of a diversity of institutions.
For Christians have a biblical commitment to helping widows and orphans. One of the best, most practical ways to fight child abuse and trafficking is to give a child an example of unconditional love. This involves sacrifice and vulnerability on the part of foster parents, volunteers who serve as Court Appointed Special Advocates and the wider Christian community. But it can dramatically change the trajectory of a vulnerable child’s life. Most people do not have the capacity to transform the world. But many people have the capacity to transform a child’s entire world.